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Welcome to the homepage of Micro-Laboratory of Atmospheric Research and Geomatics Engineering (Micro-LARGE)


Recently updated (This page was last updated on 9 April 2024)


[9 April 2024] The “What’s New” page is update. Click here to view.


Micro-LARGE has a broad spectrum of research interests and the major research areas include:

·     GPS/Beidou/GNSS Precise Point Positioning (PPP), Real-Time-Kinematic (RTK), PPP-RTK and new algorithm development

Precise Point Positioning with Ambiguity Resolution – International GNSS  Service (source)

·     Autonomous-Driving (Self-Driving) Car/Vehicle Positioning and Navigation

Driving autonomous vehicles forward with intelligent infrastructure - Smart  Cities World (source)

·     Aircraft (Boeing, Airbus, UAV) ADS-B positioning and navigation

Committee: ADS-B ‛In' Not Currently Justified | Aviation International News (source)

·     GPS/Beidou/GNSS positioning and navigation in challenging environment such as Urban Canyon

Navigating the Regulatory Challenges of Urban Air Mobility - Safran |  Navigation and Timing (source)

·     Impact of ionosphere scintillation and space weather events on autonomous-driving (self-driving), aircraft, PPP, PPP-RTK positioning and navigation

Farmers and space weather | STCE (source) Ionospheric scintillation on the GPS signal. | Download Scientific Diagram (source)


·     GPS/Beidou/GNSS signal quality and integrity monitoring and its critical applications in car/vehicle/aircraft safety monitoring

On GPS spoofing of aerial platforms: a review of threats, challenges,  methodologies, and future research directions [PeerJ] (source)

·     Observation and 3D modeling of atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) and its applications in atmospheric science and meteorology

GNSS Water Vapour Tomography: GFZ (source)

·     Precipitable water vapor (PWV) data assimilation into Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models such as WRF

Frontiers | Assimilation of GNSS and Synoptic Data in a Convection  Permitting Limited Area Model: Improvement of Simulated Tropospheric Water  Vapor Content (source)

·     Tropical cyclone (TC) observation and monitoring using multi-satellite versatile data

Hurricane Watch: How Satellites Track Huge Storms from Space | Space (source)

·     Atmospheric river (AR) observation and monitoring based on remote-sensing satellite data

Improved forecasts of atmospheric rivers through systematic reconnaissance,  better modelling, and insights on conversion of rain to flooding |  Communications Earth & Environment (source)

·     Impact of Tropical cyclone (TC) on GPS/Beidou/GNSS data quality and positioning & navigation accuracy

A map of the earth

Description automatically generated with medium confidence (source)

·     WRF augmented GPS/Beidou/GNSS Positioning and Navigation

Fig. 4. (source)

·     Application of Machine learning (ML)/Artificial Intelligence (AI) to remote sensing and GPS/Beidou/GNSS

A diagram of a machine learning

Description automatically generated(source)

·     Calibration of remote sensing satellites’ atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) data using advanced algorithms

A graph of data on a white background

Description automatically generated with medium confidence (source)

·     In-situ and remote sensing observations of atmospheric PWV, TC, SST, wind, and other parameters in ocean

Offshore Fisheries Science Vessel - Genoa Design International (source)

·     Offshore hydrographic surveying

GNSS+INS for Hydrographic Survey Applications | VERIPOS (source)


Full scholarships (as of April 2024, HK$18,100/month, HK$217,200/year, with a period of normally 4 years) are available for PhD students. The admission of PhD students to the Micro-LARGE Lab is NOT limited by quota. MSc and BSc students who are eligible for and interested in these exciting research areas are welcome to send their emails to Prof. George Zhizhao Liu @



BeiDou Navigation Satellite System: Three generations of excellence - CGTN


Croucher Summer Course 2023

GPS/Beidou/GNSS Satellite Positioning and Navigation and Earth Observation

28 May (Sunday) to 3 June (Saturday), 2023

Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Hong Kong, P. R. China

Click here to registration online on the Google form before it is full.

The full program can be downloaded here



Training outstanding PhD students

As of February 2023, the Micro-LARGE is proud to produce 3 PhD graduates over the years winning the “Faculty Award for Outstanding PhD Thesis” by Faculty of Construction and Environment (FCE). So far the Department of LSGI has 6 PhD graduates winning this Award. The Micro-LARGE graduates account for 50% of the LSGI winners.

o  As of 2021/2022, Dr. Liu is the 2nd supervisor in the Faculty (Faculty of FCE has more than 100 academic staff) to train 3 or more PhD students to win this Award. (Faculty of FCE has more than 100 academic staff) to train 2 or more PhD students to win this Award.

o  During 2021/2022 academic year, his PhD student Dr. Jia He (female) was the Department’s 6th PhD student to win this Award.

o  During 2017/2018 academic year, his PhD student Dr. Zhe Yang (female) was the Department’s 3rd PhD student to win this Award.

o  Dr. Liu was the first supervisor in the Department to train 2 PhD students to winning this Award.

o  As of 2017/2018, Dr. Liu is also 2nd supervisor in the Faculty (Faculty of FCE has more than 100 academic staff) to train 2 or more PhD students to win this Award.

o  Dr. Liu was the first supervisor in the Department to train a PhD student to win this Award.

o  During 2014/2015 academic year, his PhD student Dr. Rui Xu (female) was the Department’s first PhD student to win this Award.


High success rate in securing RGC GRF funds


Hong Kong Research Grants Council (RGC, equivalent to NSF in US and NSFC in China) and the PolyU every year spend a lot of resources and research funds in investing and supporting academic staff and PhD students to conduct world-class cutting-edge research. As of Jan. 2023, Dr. Liu has successfully 9 General Research Fund projects from the HK RGC, with a success rate 69.23%, which is two times of the average success rate across all the universities in Hong Kong. In addition, Dr. Liu has successfully secured research funds from NSFC, PolyU, and other resources.


Many opportunities for PhD Scholarship/Postdoc Fellowship/Research Associate/Research Assistant applications


We always look for PhD/MSc/BSc students, Postdoc, Research Associates, Research Assistants, Visiting Students, and Visiting Scholars to join this innovative, dynamic group. Please contact Dr. George Zhizhao Liu: for any inquiries. The Micro-LARGE Lab has established a large network of international collaborations with scientists from USA, Canada, Australia, Greece, UK, and Mainland China.


Recently updated (This page was last updated on 30 January 2023)


[30 January 2023] The “What’s New” page is update. Click here to view.


[30 March 2021] The “What’s New” page is update. Click here to view.


[24 August 2020] The “What’s New” page is update. Click here to view.


[25 May 2020] The “What’s New” page is update. Click here to view.


[August 29, 2016] The “What’s New” page is update. Click here to view.


[August 29, 2016] 2017 Hong Kong PhD Fellowship (Annually available)


[Note to prospective MSc/MPhil/PhD Students, Visiting Students, Postdoc Fellows]

The Micro-LARGE group always (year-round) looks for top excellent, self-motivated students and researchers who are striving for pursuing a post-graduate degree (MSc., MPhil, or PhD) to join the group.

Premium full scholarships will be offered to those successful applicants.

Please always contact Dr. Liu ( if you want more information or have questions.


We are more concerned with the following quality of applicants: Academic background, Publication records, Computer language skills (e.g. C++, Matlab, Fortran), English language skills, Inter-person communication skills.

For MSc/MPhil/PhD students to register a degree at PolyU, the minimum English requirement is:

Applicants who have not obtained a degree from an English-teaching university, the minimum English requirement is one of the following:

(1)      an IELTS (International English Language Testing System) >=6.5 (writing component >=6.0), or,

(2)      a regular TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language) score of >=575, or,

(3)      a computer-based TOEFL (after 1998) score of >=232, or,

(4)      an internet-based TOEFL score of >=90, or,

(5)      other acceptable English test results, such as GRE (Graduate Record Examination) or GMAT (Graduate Management Admission Test).


All English language test scores (TOEFL, IELTS or others) are considered valid for five years after the date of the test.

For the Visiting Students and Postdoc Fellows, it is ideal to meet the PolyU’s minimum English requirement.


Geomatics, an incredibly critical technology in this information era!


In this world, scientists, engineers, researchers, and actually many people are working hard every day to try to answer the following 6 most fundamental questions more correctly and more precisely:

1) When 2)Where 3) Who 4)What 5)Why 6)How

At present, we can easily answer “When” in a completely numerical way because our time has been digitalized, for instance: the UTC time at this point of writing is:2010-01-19 15:22:20. The numerical expression of time is an important progress in human being history and it is essential in this information era. So how about the other 4W1H questions? Can you also use numbers to answer the remaining 4W1H questions? Answer is yes or no. If you use Geomatics technology, you can answer the Where numerically too. Without geomatics, you can’t. Why? The answer is simple. For example, Hong Kong’s latitude and longitude is: 22°20North,  114°11 East. So you can see the location of Hong Kong can be easily described in numeric numbers. How to get these numbers? It is a part of geomatics technology – using Global Positioning System (GPS). With GPS, you may locate anywhere in the world numerically and display it on your computer screen. This is the power and beauty of geomatics technology – answering one of the world’s most fundamental questions “WHERE” in a numerical way, a way people have never thought of and away that is so critical in today’s information era.


With GPS technology, now any objects in our 4-dimensional space-time domain can be completely digitalized and numerically stamped. This is the contribution our geomaticians are making to the society.


The Micro-LARGE is a Lab dedicated to the Research, Innovation, Development (RID) in the area of satellite-based GNSS positioning and navigation, geomatics engineering, atmosphere and climate observation and modeling. We use many advanced instruments and techniques, such as Global Positioning System (GPS), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), remote sensing satellites and other instruments.


The Micro-LARGE is a resource-rich Lab that is well equipped to support the innovation work conducted daily by our researchers, with plenty of research fund (PhD scholarship), various datasets from worldwide, the world’s state-of-art hardware instruments, software packages, research facilities, external collaborations, and most importantly novel ideas.


The excellence, impact and quality (EIQ) of research outcomes are our ultimate pursuit, while quantity is our secondary consideration. We, the Micro-LARGE, are striving to the highest level of excellence in teaching, research, and community service. It is our destination goal to research and use the modern Geomatics technologies to improve the living experience of the people worldwide.


We train PhD students who truly love to conduct innovative cutting-edge research at a first-class environment. We are active in publishing our research outcomes in the top journals of our community.


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Since 11 Jul 2013